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Is my copyright recognized in other countries?

Generally, yes. Almost 160 countries have signed the Berne Convention under which they have agreed to give the same copyright protection to foreigners as they do to their own nationals. So, for example, a work produced by a Canadian citizen in Canada will be protected by copyright in the U.S. and will get the same protection as a U.S. citizen would receive. Of course, there are some countries which have not signed the convention, or which do not have comprehensive copyright laws, or whose laws will differ from Canadian standards, but generally your work should receive some copyright protection.

Which law applies to work created or used outside Canada?

Which law applies depends on the country in which the work is being used. So, for example, if you collaborated with a Nigerian citizen on a work, and your collaborator now wants to use the work in Nigeria, then Nigerian copyright law applies. By contrast, if they want to use the work in Canada, then Canadian law applies.